Hypertext Access, commonly shortened to htaccess, is a configuration file which controls the directory it is placed in and all the subdirectories underneath it. It’s an incredibly useful feature which allows webmasters to control how many aspects of their website works.
You can redirect pages, change the extensions of pages, password protect directories and much much more.
In this htaccess guide I will show you some of the basic tricks and tips which will help you with your website.
Table of Contents
What is .htaccess?
.htaccess is a configuration file for use on web servers running the Apache Web Server software. When a .htaccess file is placed in a directory which is in turn ‘loaded via the Apache Web Server', then the .htaccess file is detected and executed by the Apache Web Server software.
These .htaccess files can be used to alter the configuration of the Apache Web Server software to enable/disable additional functionality and features that the Apache Web Server software has to offer.
These facilities include basic redirect functionality, for instance if a 404 file not found error occurs, or for more advanced functions such as content password protection or image hot link prevention.
What Can I Do?
You may be wondering what .htaccess can do, or you may have read about some of its uses but don't realize how many things you can actually do with it.
There is a huge range of things .htaccess can do including: password protecting folders, redirecting users automatically, custom error pages, changing your file extensions, banning users with certain IP addresses, only allowing users with certain IP addresses, stopping directory listings and using a different file as the index file.
Creating .htaccess File
Creating a .htaccess file may cause you a few problems. Writing the file is easy, you just need enter the appropriate code into a text editor (like notepad). You may run into problems with saving the file.
Because .htaccess is a strange file name (the file actually has no name but a 8 letter file extension) it may not be accepted on certain systems (e.g. Windows 3.1). With most operating systems, though, all you need to do is to save the file by entering the name as: “.htaccess” (including the quotes).
If this doesn't work, you will need to name it something else (e.g. htaccess.txt) and then upload it to the server. Once you have uploaded the file you can then rename it using an FTP program.
Before beginning using .htaccess, I should give you one warning. Although using .htaccess on your server is extremely unlikely to cause you any problems (if something is wrong it simply won't work), you should be wary if you are using the Microsoft FrontPage Extensions.
The FrontPage extensions use the .htaccess file so you should not really edit it to add your own information. If you do want to (this is not recommended, but possible) you should download the .htaccess file from your server first (if it exists) and then add your code to the beginning.
Custom Error Pages
The first use of the .htaccess file which I will cover is custom error pages. These will allow you to have your own, personal error pages (for example when a file is not found) instead of using your host's error pages or having no page.
This will make your site seem much more professional in the unlikely event of an error. It will also allow you to create scripts to notify you if there is an error (for example I use a PHP script on Free Webmaster Help to automatically e-mail me when a page is not found).
You can use custom error pages for any error as long as you know its number (like 404 for page not found) by adding the following to your .htaccess file:
ErrorDocument 404 /notfound.html
These are some of the most common errors:
401 – Authorization Required
400 – Bad request
403 – Forbidden
500 – Internal Server Error
404 – Wrong page
Then, all you need to do is to create a file to display when the error happens and upload it and the .htaccess file.
Please provide your valuable comments for the above article and wait for the next. You can also suggest me what you want to do with the help of .htaccess, I will try to add that in my next article.